And also with Michael, or Adam, the father of all, the prince of all, the ancient of days; (D&C 27:11)
Wherefore teach it unto your children, that all men, everywhere, must repent, or they can in nowise inherit the kingdom of God, for no unclean thing can dwell there, or dwell in his presence; for, in the language of Adam, Man of Holiness is his name, and the name of his Only Begotten is the Son of Man, even Jesus Christ, a righteous Judge, who shall come in the meridian of time. (Moses 6:57 )
Adam: Strong’s # 120 [Hebrew] (“aw-dawm” ) ruddy [to show blood in the face], a human being, man, mankind.
Michael: Strong’s # 4317 [Hebrew] (“me-kaw-ale”) “Who [is] like God?” the name of an archangel.
Angel: Strong’s # 4397 [Hebrew] (“mal-awk” )To despatch as a deputy; a messenger; spec. of God.
Archangel: trong’s # 743 [Greek] (“ ar-khang’-el-os” ) a chief angel.
(Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible, 1990 Edition)
The scriptural definition of the word “angel” is also given as a “resurrected personage,” and is one of the two types of beings that may inhabit the Celestial kingdom:
There are two kinds of beings in heaven, namely: Angels, who are resurrected personages, having bodies of flesh and bones— For instance, Jesus said: Handle me and see, for a spirit hath not flesh and bones, as ye see me have. Secondly: the spirits of just men made perfect, they who are not resurrected, but inherit the same glory. (D&C 129:1-3)
Prophet Joseph Smith on Deity in the “King Follett” Discourse:
I will show from the Hebrew Bible that I am correct, and the first word shows a plurality of Gods; and I want the apostates and learned men to come here and prove to the contrary, if they can. An unlearned boy must give you a little Hebrew.
Berosheit baurau Eloheim ait aushamayeen vehau auraits,
rendered by King James’ translators, “In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.” I want to analyze the word Berosheit. Rosh, the head; Sheit, a grammatical termination; the Baith was not originally put there when the inspired man wrote it, but it has been since added by an old Jew. Baurau signifies to bring forth; Eloheim is from the word Eloi, God, in the singular number; and by adding the word heim, it renders it Gods. It read first, “In the beginning the head of the Gods brought forth the Gods,” or, as others have translated it, “The head of the Gods called the Gods together.” I want to show a little learning as well as other fools.
The head God organized the heavens and the earth. I defy all the world to refute me. In the beginning the heads of the Gods organized the heavens and the earth. Now the learned priests and the people rage, and the heathen imagine a vain thing. If we pursue the Hebrew text further, it reads, “The head one of the Gods said, Let us make a man in our own image,” I once asked a learned Jew, “If the Hebrew language compels us to render all words ending in heim in the plural, why not render the first Eloheim plural?” He replied, “That is the rule with few exceptions; but in this case it would ruin the Bible.” He acknowledged I was right. I came here to investigate these things precisely as I believe them. Hear and judge for yourselves; and if you go away satisfied, well and good.
In the very beginning the Bible shows there is a plurality of Gods beyond the power of refutation. It is a great subject I am dwelling on. The word Eloheim ought to be in the plural all the way through — Gods. The heads of the Gods appointed one God for us; and when you take [that] view of the subject, its sets one free to see all the beauty, holiness and perfection of the Gods. All I want is to get the simple, naked truth, and the whole truth. (TPJS, pp. 371-372)
The following is from an address delivered by President Joseph Smith, in Commerce, Illinois, Tuesday, June 2, 1839, speaking of many of the responsibilities of Michael or Adam:
The Priesthood was first given to Adam; he obtained the First Presidency, and held the keys of it from generation to generation. He obtained it in the Creation, before the world was formed, as in Gen. 1:26,27,28. He had dominion given him over every living creature. He is Michael the Archangel, spoken of in the Scriptures. Then to Noah, who is Gabriel; he stands next in authority to Adam in the Priesthood; he was called of God to this office, and was the father of all living in his day, and to him was given the dominion. These men held keys first on earth, and then in heaven.
The Priesthood is an everlasting principle, and existed with God from eternity, and will to eternity, without beginning of days or end of years. The keys have to be brought from heaven whenever the Gospel is sent. When they are revealed from heaven, it is by Adam’s authority.
Daniel in his seventh chapter speaks of the Ancient of Days; he means the oldest man, our Father Adam Michael; he will call his children together and hold a council with them to prepare them for the coming of the Son of Man. He (Adam) is the father of the human family, and presides over the spirits of all men, and all that have had the keys must stand before him in this grand council. This may take place before some of us leave this stage of action. The Son of Man stands before him, and there is given him glory and dominion. Adam delivers up his stewardship to Christ, that which was delivered to him as holding the keys of the universe, but retains his standing as head of the human family.
The spirit of man is not a created being; it existed from eternity, and will exist to eternity. Anything created cannot be eternal; and earth, water, etc., had their existence in an elementary state, from eternity. Our Savior speaks of children and says, Their angels always stand before my Father. The Father called all spirits before Him at the creation of man, and organized them. He (Adam) is the head, and was told to multiply. The keys were first given to him, and by him to others. He will have to give an account of his stewardship, and they to him. (DHC 3:385-387)
Joseph Smith designates Adam or the “Ancient of Days” as the Individual through whom Christ must be revealed. He also reveals that it will be through Adam that the Dispensation of the Fullness of Times will be revealed:
—Commencing with Adam who was the first man who is spoken of in Daniel as being the “Ancient of Days” or in other words the first and oldest of all, not only by progeny, but he was the first to hold the spiritual blessings, to who was made known the plan of ordinances for the Salvation of his posterity unto the end, and to whom Christ was first revealed, and through whom Christ has been revealed from heaven and will continue to be revealed from henceforth. Adam holds the Keys of the dispensation of the fullness of times, i.e. the dispensation of all the times have been and will be revealed through him from the beginning to Christ and from Christ to the end of all world the dispensations that have been and are to be revealed. (Prophet Joseph Smith, Words of Joseph Smith, p. 39; TPJS, p. 167)
Traditional Commentaries, Bible Dictionaries and Encyclopedias have attributed to the “Ancient of Days” the identity of God the Father:
The Ancient of Days is God Almighty. * * * This is the only place in the sacred writings where God the Father is represented in human form. (Adam Clarke’s Commentary of the Bible, Daniel 7-9. Adam Clarke was a Methodist minister and a Hebrew Scholar in the late eighteenth century. This commentary was used by the Prophet Joseph Smith.)
The Ancient of Days is a name given to God by the Prophet Daniel. * * * It is from these descriptions of the Almighty that Christian art derived its general manner of representing the first person of the Holy Trinity. (The Catholic Encyclopedia, 1907 Edition, 1:463)
The Ancient of Days is the description given by Daniel, who pictures God on His throne of judgment, judging the great world empires. * * * This title alternates with the ‘Most High.’ (Erdman’s Commentary of the Bible, p. 480)
Ancient Israel had long envisaged Yahweh as the divine judge enthroned in the assembly of his angels. * * * Even though God is not explicitly mentioned by name, every reader would at once recognize as God ‘the Ancient One’ who presides at this celestial tribunal. * * * The term ‘the Ancient One’ is used of God, though not found in older Biblical literature is partly based on the . . . popular notion of God as an old man. (The Anchor Bible 23:217-218)
The Ancient of Days is a poetical epithet for God. * * * [Daniel uses the title Ancient of Days to describe] the venerable character of the being whose name the author hesitates to mention. (The Jewish Encyclopedia, 1:571-572)
This expression [Ancient of Days] occurs only in Daniel 7:9, 13, 22. ‘Ancient’ renders an adjective . . . Hence the adjective, connected with the emphatic absolute plural of “day,” means advanced (with regard to) the days, that is, very aged. * * * It is an elegant Semitic expression to designate an old man. * * * Although the passage does not directly say so, the numerous commentators unite to take it at once to be a euphemistic term for God. (The Zondervan Pictorial Encyclopedia of the Bible, 1:156)
Daniel’s description of the “Ancient of Days,” which is clearly a description of our Father in Heaven:
9 I beheld till the thrones were cast down, and the Ancient of days did sit, whose garment was white as snow, and the hair of his head like the pure wool: his throne was like the fiery flame, and his wheels as burning fire.
10 A fiery stream issued and came forth from before him: thousand thousands ministered unto him, and ten thousand times ten thousand stood before him: the judgment was set, and the books were opened.
11 I beheld then because of the voice of the great words which the horn spake: I beheld even till the beast was slain, and his body destroyed, and given to the burning flame.
12 As concerning the rest of the beasts, they had their dominion taken away: yet their lives were prolonged for a season and time.
13 I saw in the night visions, and, behold, one like the Son of man came with the clouds of heaven, and came to the Ancient of days, and they brought him near before him. (Daniel 7:9-13)
Adam has right to the title “Firstborn” as he was the first man upon this earth, and also because of His relationship to His Father. In the Doctrine and Covenants, the Lord designates the “Firstborn” as God, whose son is Jesus Christ:
. . .even the right of the firstborn, or the first man, who is Adam. (Abraham 1:3)
Which glory is that of the church of the Firstborn, even of God, the holiest of all, through Jesus Christ his Son. (D&C 88:5)
Now regarding Adam, He came here from another planet an immortalized being and brought His wife, Eve, with him. (Prophet Joseph Smith statement to Anson Call, February 1844, preserved by John M. Whitaker Papers, Special Collections, University of Utah Library, SLC, Utah)
After the deed was done, the Lord enquired for Abel, and made Cain own what he had done with him. Now says the grandfather, I will not destroy the seed of Michael and his wife, and Cain I will not kill you, nor suffer anyone else to kill you, but I will put a mark upon you. (Brigham Young, speech at the territorial legislature, February 5, 1852)
My next sermon will be to both Saint and sinner. One thing has remained a mystery in this kingdom up to this day. It is in regard to the character of the well-beloved Son of God, upon which subject the Elders of Israel have conflicting views. Our God and Father in heaven, is a being of tabernacle, or, in other words, He has a body, with parts the same as you and I have; and is capable of showing forth His works to organized beings, as, for instance, in the world in which we live, it is the result of the knowledge and infinite wisdom that dwell in His organized body. His son Jesus Christ has become a personage of tabernacle, and has a body like his father. The Holy Ghost is the Spirit of the Lord, and issues forth from Himself, and may properly be called God’s minister to execute His will in immensity; being called to govern by His influence and power; but He is not a person of tabernacle as we are, and as our Father in Heaven and Jesus Christ are. The question has been, and is often, asked, who it was that begat the Son of the Virgin Mary. The infidel world have concluded that if what the Apostles wrote about his father and mother be true, and the present marriage discipline acknowledged by Christendom be correct, then Christians must believe that God is the father of an illegitimate son, in the person of Jesus Christ! The infidel fraternity teach that to their disciples. I will tell you how it is. Our Father in Heaven begat all the spirits that ever were, or ever will be, upon this earth; and they were born spirits in the eternal world. Then the Lord by His power and wisdom organized the mortal tabernacle of man. We were made first spiritual, and afterwards temporal.
Now hear it, O inhabitants of the earth, Jew and Gentile, Saint and sinner! When our father Adam came into the garden of Eden, he came into it with a celestial body, and brought Eve, one of his wives, with him. He helped to make and organize this world. He is MICHAEL, the Archangel, the ANCIENT OF DAYS! about whom holy men have written and spoken—HE is our FATHER and our GOD, and the only God with whom WE have to do. Every man upon the earth, professing Christians or non-professing, must hear it, and will know it sooner or later. They came here, organized the raw material, and arranged in their order the herbs of the field, the trees, the apple, the peach, the plum, the pear, and every other fruit that is desirable and good for man; the seed was brought from another sphere, and planted in this earth. The thistle, and thorn, the brier, and the obnoxious weed did not appear until after the earth was cursed. When Adam and Eve had eaten of the forbidden fruit, their bodies became mortal from its effects, and therefore their offspring were mortal. When the Virgin Mary conceived the child Jesus, the Father had begotten him in his own likeness. He was not begotten by the Holy Ghost. And who is the Father? He is the first of the human family; and when he took a tabernacle, it was begotten by his Father in heaven, after the same manner as the tabernacles of Cain, Abel, and the rest of the sons and daughters of Adam and Eve; from the fruits of the earth, the first earthly tabernacles were originated by the Father, and so on in succession. I could tell you much more about this; but were I to tell you the whole truth, blasphemy would be nothing to it, in the estimation of the superstitious and over-righteous of mankind. However, I have told you the truth as far as I have gone. I have heard men preach upon the divinity of Christ, and exhaust all the wisdom they possessed. All Scripturalists, and approved theologians who were considered exemplary for piety and education, have under-taken to expound on this subject, in every age of the Christian era; and after they have done all, they are obliged to conclude by exclaiming “great is the mystery of godliness,” and tell nothing.
It is true that the earth was organized by three distinct characters, namely, Eloheim, Yahovah, and Michael, these three forming a quorum, as in all heavenly bodies, and in organizing element, perfectly represented in the Deity, as Father, Son, and Holy Ghost.
Again, they will try to tell how the divinity of Jesus is joined to his humanity, and exhaust all their mental faculties, and wind up with this profound language, as describing the soul of man, “it is an immaterial substance!” What a learned idea! Jesus, our elder brother, was begotten in the flesh by the same character that was in the garden of Eden, and who is our Father in Heaven. Now, let all who may hear these doctrines, pause before they make light of them, or treat them with indifference, for they will prove their salvation or damnation. (Brigham Young, April 9, 1852, JD 1:46-48. Caps in original)
Friday 9th April 1852 . . . Another meeting this evening. President B. Young taught that adam was the father of Jesus and the only God to us. That he came to this world in a resurrected body &c more hereafter. (Journal of Hosea Stout, April 9, 1852)
April 16, 1852 . . . We had the best Conference that I ever attended during the time of the Conference President Brigham Young said that our spirits were begotten before Adam came to the Earth, and that Adam helped to make the Earth, that he had a Celestial body when he came to the Earth, and that he brought his wife or one of his wives with him, and that Eave was also a Celestial being, that they eat of the fruit of the ground until they begat children from the Earth, he said that Adam was only God we would have, and that Christ was not begotten of the Holy Ghost, but of the Father Adam. (Samuel Roger, Private Journal MSS, April 16, 1852)
Who did beget him? His Father, and his father is our God, and the father of our Lord, Jesus Christ. Who is he? He is Father Adam; Michael: The Ancient of Days. (Manuscript Addresses of Brigham Young, February 19, 1854)
Feb 19. 1854: President Young followed & made many good remarks . . . He said that our God was Father Adam. He was the Father of the Savior Jesus Christ—Our God was no more or less than Adam . . . Michael the Archangel. (Journal of Wilford Woodruff, February 19, 1854)
[Excerpts are from a discourse by Brigham Young, Oct. 8, 1854 (Manuscript Addresses of Brigham Young)]: I know by my experience by the visions of eternity that God reveals things to individuals that does not belong to the Church at large at present, or that does not yet belong to the Mass. That I know. — Every world has had an Adam, and an Eve; named so, simply because the first man is always called Adam, and the first woman Eve; and the Oldest Son has always had the privilege of being Ordained, Appointed and Called to be the Heir of the Family, if he does not rebel against the Father, and he is the Savior of the Family. Every world that has been created, has been created upon the same principle. They may vary in their varieties, yet the eternity is one; it is one eternal round. These are things that scarcely belong to the best of this congregation. There are items of doctrine, and principles, in the bosom of eternity that the best of the Latter-day Saints are unworthy to receive. If the visions of their minds were opened to look into the vast creations, and gaze upon the Power, and Glory, and Goodness, and Exaltation of the Gods they would exclaim; “Wo is me, I am undone, I am of unclean lips.” — The spirits of all the human family were begotten by one Father. Now be watchful, for if I have time, and feel able, I shall communicate something in connection with this you are not expecting. Yes, every son and daughter of Adam according to the flesh can claim one parentage; the Heathen, and the Christian, the Jew and the Gentile, the high and the low, the king and the beggar, the black and the white, all who have sprung from Adam and Eve have one father. — The God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ is the Father of our spirits. — I began at the end, and shall probably finish at the beginning of my discourse; but it is no matter which end a man begins at, for the first shall be last, and the last first; which proves it is one eternal round; it is one eternity. Eloheim looks around upon the eternity of matter, and said to His associates, and those that he was pleased to call upon at that time for His counselors, with regard to the Elements, Worlds, Planets, Kingdoms and thrones; said He, “Yahovah Michael, see that Eternal Matter on all sides, this way and that way; we have already created Worlds upon Worlds, shall we create another world? Yes, go and organize the elements yonder in space;” not empty space for there is no such thing, once in a while, earth quakes, and the extensive destruction of combustible matter by fire will come nigh making empty space for perhaps the millionth part of a second. “Yahovah Michael go and create a world, make, organize it, form it; and then put upon it everything in all the variety that you have seen, that you have been in the habit of being associated with in other worlds, of beasts, birds, fowls, fish, and every insect, and creeping thing, and finally, when the whole eternity of element is full of life, bring it together and make of it living creatures.”
Yahovah Michael goes and does as he is told. What I am now going to tell you, will no doubt astonish the whole of you. When Yahovah Michael had organized the world, and brought from another kingdom the beasts, fish, fowl, and insects, and every tree, and plant with which we are acquainted, and thousands that we never saw, when He had filled the Earth with animal and vegetable life, Michael or Adam goes down to the new made world, and there he stays.
Do you suppose he went there alone. Moses made the Bible to say his wife was taken out of his side, was made of one of his ribs. I do not know anything to the contrary of my ribs being equal on both sides. The Lord knows if I had lost a rib for rib for each wife I have, I should have had none left long ago. Some try to say how many wives the Governor of Utah has, but if they can tell, they can tell more than I can, for I do not know how many I have; I have not counted them up for many years. I did not know how many I had before I left the United States I had so many. I heard that I had ninety. Why bless your souls, ninety is not a beginning. You might ask me if I have ever see them all; I answer no; I see a few of them I pick up myself here. I have lots, and scores I never see nor shall not until the morning of the resurrection.
Now about the rib. As for the lord taking a rib out of Adams side to make a woman of, He took one out of my side just as much.
“But, Brother Brigham, would you make it appear that Moses did not tell the truth?”
No not a particle more than I would that your mother did not tell the truth, when she told you that little Billy came from a hollow toad stool. I would not accuse your mother of lying, any more than I would Moses; as the people in the days of Moses wanted to know things that was not for them, the same as your children do, when they want to know where their little brother came from, and he answered them according to their folly, the same as you did your children.
Now some will be ready to say, “We always heard these Mormons did not believe the Bible.” I believe all the truth that is there and that is enough for me, and for you to believe.
“Then the Lord did not make Adam out of the dust of the earth.”
Yes he did, but I have not got to that part of my discourse yet. Adam was made of the dust of the earth.
“Was he made of the dust of this earth.”
No, but of the dust of the earth whereon he was born in the flesh; that is the way he was made; he was made of dust.
“Did the Lord put into him his spirit.”
Yes, as the Lord put into you your spirit, he was begotten of a father, and brought forth as you and I were; and so are all intelligent beings brought forth from eternity to eternity. Man was not made the same as you make an adobe to put in a wall. Moses said Adam was made of the dust of the ground of this Earth, but he was made of the dust of the earth where he lived. Where he honored his calling, believed in his Savior, or Elder Brother, and by his faithfulness, was redeemed , and got a Glorious Resurrection. — I tell you more, Adam is the Father of our spirits. He lived upon an earth; he did abide his creation, and did honor to his calling and Priesthood; and obeyed his Master or Lord, and probably many of his wives did the same, and they lived and died upon an earth, and then were resurrected again to Immortality and Eternal Life.
“Did he resurrect himself,” you inquire. I want to throw out a few hints upon the resurrection as it seems to come within the circuit of my ideas whether it ought to come with the circuit of my remarks or not. I believe we have already acknowledged the truth established that no person can officiate in any office he has not been subject to himself and been legally appointed to fill. That no person in this Kingdom can officiate in any ordinance he himself has not obeyed; consequently no being who has not been resurrected possesses the Keys of the Power of Resurrection. That you have been told often. Adam therefore was resurrected by some one who had been resurrected. — Now, many inquiries will be made about the Savior, such as, “Who is he? Is he the Father of Adam? Is he the god of Adam? ‘When Christ has finished his labor and presented it to his father, then he, Adam will receive a fullness.’“ That is all easily understood by me. He cannot receive a fullness of the kingdoms He has organized until they are completed. If he sends His servants off to the right and to the left to perform a certain labor, His kingdom is not complete, until His ministers have accomplished everything to make His kingdom complete and returned home again.
Many inquire, who is this Savior? I will tell you what I think about it, and as the Southerners say I reckon, and as the Yankees say I guess; but I will tell you what I reckon. I reckon that Father Adam was a resurrected being, with his wives and posterity, and in the Celestial Kingdom they were crowned with Glory, Immortality and Eternal Lives, with Thrones, Principalities and Powers: and it was said to him, “It is your right to organize the elements; and to your Creations and Posterity there shall be no end, but you shall add Kingdom to Kingdom, and Throne to Throne; and still behold the vast eternity of unorganized matter.”
Adam then was a resurrected being; and I reckon,
Our spirits and the spirits of all the human family were begotten by Adam, and born of Eve.
“How are we going to know this?”
I reckon it.
And I reckon that Adam came into the Garden of Eden, and did actually eat of the fruit that he himself planted; and I reckon there was a previous understanding, and the whole plan was previously calculated, before the Garden of Eden was made, that he would reduce his posterity to sin, misery, darkness, wickedness, wretchedness, and to the power of the Devil, that they might be prepared for an Exaltation, for without this they could not receive one. — The inquiry will arise, among those who are strenuous, and tenacious for the account given by Moses, as to Adam.
“Did not Adam die.”
Yes he died.
“Does not the Bible say he died.”
I do not know nor care, but I think it would be hard I think to find where he died; or where Moses died though I have no doubt Moses died, and Adam also; how? Just as you and I have to die, and be laid away in the bowels of Mother earth; that, however, Moses did not see fit to tell us.
Adam planted the Garden of Eden, and he with his wife Eve partook of the fruit of this Earth, until their systems were charged with the nature of Earth, and then they could beget bodies, for their spiritual children. If the spirit does not enter into the embryo man that is forming in the womb of the woman, the result will be false conception, a living, intelligent being cannot be produced. Adam and Eve begat the first mortal bodies on this Earth, and from that commencement every spirit that was begotten in eternity for this Earth will enter bodies thus prepared for them here, until the winding up scene, and that will not be until the last of these spirits enters an earthly tabernacle.
Then I reckon that the children of Adam and Eve married each other; this is speaking to the point. I believe in sisters marrying brothers, and brothers having their sisters for wives. Why? Because we cannot do otherwise. There are none others for me to marry but my sisters.
“But you would not pretend to say you would marry your father and mothers daughter.”
If I did not I would marry another of my sisters that lives over in another garden; the material of which they are organized is just the same; there is no difference between them, and those who live in this garden. Our spirits are all brothers and sisters, and so are our bodies; and the opposite idea to this has resulted from the ignorant, and foolish traditions of the nations of the earth. They have corrupted themselves with each other, and I want them to understand that they have corrupted their own flesh, blood, and bones; for they are of the same flesh, blood, and bones, as all the family of the Earth.
I am approaching the subject of our marriage relations Brother Hyde lectured upon, but I shall not have time, or strength to say much about this. But, I reckon that Father Adam, and Mother Eve had the children of the human family prepared to come here and take bodies; and when they come to take bodies, they enter into the bodies prepared for them, and that body gets an exaltation with the spirit, when they are prepared to be crowned in Father’s Kingdom.
“What, into Adam’s Kingdom?”
As to my talking what I want to say at this time I shall not do it. I am exhausting myself; I have to speak loud, and it is hard labor.
I tell you, when you see your Father in the Heavens, you will see Adam; when you see your Mother that bear your spirit, you will see Mother Eve. And when you see yourselves there you have gained your Exaltation; you have honored your calling here on the earth; your body has returned to its mother Earth; and somebody had broken the chains of death that bound you, and given you a resurrection. — What will become of the world then? It will be baptized with fire. It has been baptized with water, and it will then be cleansed by fire, and become like a sea of glass, and be made Celestial; and Jesus Christ our Elder Brother will take the whole Earth, with all the Saints and go with them to the Father even to Adam; and you will continue to receive more and more Intelligence, Glory, Exaltation, and Power.
I want to tell you a thing with regard to parents, wives, brothers and sisters etc. The time will come when it will be told where this man, and that woman shall be placed; The real blood of Joseph will be selected our from the tribes of Israel, and every man, and woman will be put in their places, and stand in their order where the Lord designs them to be. When you get back into the presence of God, and the Lord should say “Who have you brought with you?” Your reply would be, “My wife and children;” but in reality you have only with you your brothers and sisters. The Father would say, “These are my children.”
When you meet your Father in Heaven you will know Him, and realize that you have lived with Him, and rested in His bosom for ages gone passed, and He will hail you as His sons and daughters, and embrace you, and you will embrace Him, and “Hallelujah, thank God I have come to Father again, I have got back home” will resound through the Heavens. There are ten thousand things connected with these ideas. You see the human family of every shade of color between black and white. I could stand here and tell you what I reckon but it would take an age for me to tell you all there is about it.
We have all come from one father even Adam, both the black and the white, the grizzled and the gray; the noble, and the ignoble; and the time will come, when they will all come back again into his presence. When they have behaved themselves, and proved faithful to their calling, and to their God the Curse will be removed, from every class, and nation of men that desires to work the work of God. This has been told you, that Saviour would come upon Mount Zion, and judge the Mount of Esau. Let me read it for you, “There shall saviours come upon Mount Zion, and Save the Mount of Esau.” What does gentile signify? Disobedience. What does Israel signify? Obedience. What is the name of the first man? Adam, which signifies first man, and Eve signifies first woman. And when Michael the Archangel shall sound his trump and the Ancient of Days shall come, all things that we have once been familiar with will come back again to our memory. — I commenced with Father Adam in his resurrected state, noticed our spiritual state, then our temporal, or mortal state, and traveled until I got back to Father Adam again. (Manuscript Addresses of Brigham Young, October 8, 1854, Church Archives)
There is but one living and true God, the father of our spirits. Well now, who is the father of our spirits? . . . I did take the liberty to tell this once, and I told it in a way that did not get to their understanding, and suppose I take the same course this evening, and you do not understand, but you have the spirit of the Almighty with you to enable you to appreciate it . . . It is a subject I am aware that does not appear so close to our understandings at present as we could wish it or as it will be some day, and it is one that should not trouble us at all, all such things will become more clear to your minds bye and bye.
I tell you this as my belief about that personage who is called the Ancient of Days, the Prince and so on, but I do not tell it because that I wish it established in the minds of other; though to me this is as clear as the sun, it is as plain as my alphabet. I understand it as I do the path to go home. I did not understand so until my mind became enlightened with the spirit and by the revelations of God; neither will you understand until our Father in Heaven reveals all things unto you. To my minds and to my feelings those matters are all plain and easy to understand. (Manuscript Addresses of Brigham Young, April 25, 1855, Church Archives)
One of these is God the Father, Michael or Adam, from whose loins the earth is peopled, and who is now labouring for the redemption of his children. (Apostle Franklin D. Richards, Millennial Star, December 15, 1855, p. 785)
Though we have it in history that our father Adam was made of the dust of this earth, and that he knew nothing about his God previous to being made here, yet it is not so; and when we learn the truth we shall see and understand that he helped to make this world, and was the chief manager in that operation.
He was the person who brought the animals and the seeds from other planets to this world, and brought a wife with him and stayed here. You may read and believe what you please as to what is found written in the Bible. Adam was made from the dust of an earth, but not from the dust of this earth. He was made as you and I are made, and no person was ever made upon any other principle.
Do you not suppose that he was acquainted with his associates, who came and helped to make this earth? Yes, they were just as familiar with each other as we are with our children and parents. (Brigham Young, April 20, 1856, JD 3:316)
I have learned by experience that there is but one God that pertains to this people, and He is the Lord that pertains this earth—the first man. That first man sent his own son to redeem the world. (Heber C. Kimball, June 29, 1856, JD 4:1)
Hymn 306, (11’s.)
1. We believe in our God, the great Prince of His Race,
The Archangel Michael, the Ancient of Days,
Our Own Father Adam, earth’s Lord, as is plain,
Who’ll counsel and fight for his children again.
2. We believe in His Son, Jesus Christ, who, in love
To his brethren and sister, came down from above,
To die to redeem them from death, and to teach
To mortals and spirits the Gospel we preach.
3. We believe in the Spirit most holy, that’s given
From God, our great Father, who dwells high in heaven,
To instruct and enlighten, to comfort and cheer—
Tongues, dreams, visions, healings proclaim it is here.
4. We believe in the Gospel, the old-fashion’d plan,
Unalter’d one whit by the wisdom of man—
have faith, and repent of the sins you commit,
Be baptiz’d in water, then God will remit.
5. The Elders will then lay their hands upon you,
the Holy Ghost giving—all things become new;
Your peace will be pure, and be free from alloy,
Your soul will be fill’d with unspeakable joy.
(Sacred Hymns for the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, eleventh 1856 English Edition, Franklin D Richards, Editor)
But when we arrive at that point, a vail is dropt, and our knowledge is cut off. Were it not so, you could trace back your history to the Father of our spirits in the eternal world. He is a being of the same species as ourselves; He lives as we do, except the difference that we are earthly, and He is heavenly. He has been earthly, and is of precisely the same species of being that we are. Whether Adam is the personage that we should consider our heavenly Father, or not, is considerable of a mystery to a good many. I do not care for one moment how that is; it is no matter whether we are to consider Him our God, or whether His Father, or His Grandfather, for in either case we are of one species—of one family—and Jesus Christ is also of our species. (Brigham Young, February 8, 1857, JD 4:215)
The sun rises and scorches the tender plants that seem to be growing in them, and we have to cry to the people, “reform, REFORM, REFORM,” when in reality it is a disgrace that such instruction should ever be necessary. It is a great disgrace; it is mortifying to angels, and I will insure that it is mortifying to our Father Adam. His heart is pained with such things; and the Prophets are pained with them, and so are all who understand and have proved themselves worthy of eternal life, both those who now live on the earth and those who have gone behind the vail.
. . . If you look at things spiritually, and then naturally, and see how they appear together, you will understand that when you have the privilege of commencing the work that Adam commenced on this earth, you will have all your children come and report to you of their sayings and acts; and you will hold every son and daughter of yours responsible when you get the privilege of being an Adam on earth.
Suppose that one of us had been Adam, and had peopled and filled the world with our children, they, although they might be great grandchildren, &c., still, say I, had I been Adam, they would be my flesh, blood, and bones, and have the same kind of a spirit put into them that is in me. And pertaining to the flesh they would all be my children, and I would call them to account, and by and bye I would call every one of them home. They would have to render up to father an account, that he may know what their works have been on earth, for man is judged according to his works on the earth.
Comparing spiritual with temporal things, it must be that God knows something about temporal things, and has had a body and been on an earth, were it not so He would not know how to judge men righteously, according to the temptations and sin they have had to contend with. If I can pass brother Joseph, I shall stand a good chance for passing Peter, Jesus, the Prophets, Moses, Abraham, and all back to Father Adam, and be pretty sure of receiving his approbation. If I can pass all this ordeal, shall I not be pretty safe? I think I shall.
When we get before father Adam and the innumerable company that will come before him—when we draw near to the Ancient of Days with the rest of his children, and receive his approbation, shall we not be safe? (Brigham Young, March 8, 1857, JD 4:265-270)
Every man that comes into this world is an independent being, upon the same principle that our Father and our God is independent, only He is independent to a greater degree, being further advanced in perfection. He came here, and helped to organize this earth and having had an experience in organizing earths before He came here, He was capable, and had every principle necessary to create this earth and fill it with inhabitants. If there had not been a seat of government in Him, and all those powers and faculties necessary to propagate the human species, He never could have done that work. We are His sons and daughters. (Heber C. Kimball, June 7, 1857, JD 4:334)
Some have grumbled because I believe our God to be so near to us as Father Adam. There are many who know that doctrine to be true. Where was Michael in the creation of this earth? Did he have a mission to the earth? He did. Where was he? In the Grand Council, and performed the mission assigned him there. Now, if it should happen that we have to pay tribute to Father Adam, what a humiliating circumstance it would be! Just wait till you pass Joseph Smith; and after Joseph lets you pass him, you will find Peter; and after you pass the Apostles and many of the Prophets, you will find Abraham, and he will say, “I have the keys, and except you do thus and so, you cannot pass;” and after a while you come to Jesus; and when you at length meet Father Adam, how strange it will appear to your present notions. If we can pass Joseph and have him say, “Here; you have been faithful, good boys; I hold the keys of this dispensation; I will let you pass;” then we shall be very glad to see the white locks of Father Adam. But those are ideas which do not concern us at present, although it is written in the Bible—”This is eternal life, to know thee, the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom thou hast sent.” (Brigham Young, October 7, 1857, JD 5:330)
Now, brethren, you have got a spirit in you, and that spirit was created and organized—was born and begotten by our Father and our God before we ever took these bodies; and these bodies were formed by him, and through him, and of him, just as much as the spirit was; for I will tell you, he commenced and brought forth spirits; and then, when he completed that work, he commenced and brought forth tabernacles for those spirits to dwell in. I came through him, both spirit and body. (Heber C. Kimball, November 8, 1857, JD 6:31)
When you tell me that father Adam was made as we make adobies from the earth, you tell me what I deem an idle tale. When you tell me that the beasts of the field were produced in that manner, you are speaking idle worlds devoid of meaning. There is no such thing in all the eternities where the Gods dwell. Mankind are here because they are the offspring of parents who were first brought here from another planet, and power was given them to propagate their species, and they were commanded to multiply and replenish the earth. (Brigham Young, October 9, 1859, JD 7:285)
Adam and Eve are the parents of all pertaining to the flesh, and I would not say that they are not also the parents of our spirits. (Brigham Young, October 9, 1859, JD 7:290)
— I [Orson Pratt] would like to enumerate items, first preached and publish[ed] that Adam is the fa[ther] of our spirits, and father of Spirit and father of our bodies. When I read the Rev[elation] given to Joseph I read directly the opposite.
* * *
— You [Orson Pratt] came out tonight and place them as charges, and have as many against me as I have you. One thing I thought I might still have omitted. It was Joseph’s doctrine that Adam was God when in Luke Johnson’s, at O[rson] Hyde[‘s] the power came upon us, or such that alarmed the neighborhood. God comes to earth and eats and partakes of fruit. (Charge made by Orson Pratt to Brigham Young, and Brigham Young’s Response to Orson Pratt, April 4, 1860, Miscellaneous Papers, Brigham Young Collection, Church Archives)
Brother Cannon said there was a learned doctor that wanted to be baptized . . . He is satisfied that the doctrine of plurality of Gods and that Adam is our Father is a true doctrine revealed from God to Joseph & Brigham. For this same doctrine is taught in some of the old Jewish records, which have never been in print and [said] I know Joseph Smith or Brigham Young have never had access to them and the Lord has revealed this doctrine unto them or they could not have taught it. (Journal of Wilford Woodruff, September 4, 1860)
The Lord told me that Adam was my father and that he was the God and father of all the inhabitants of this Earth. (Solmon F. Kimball papers, Sacred History, Church Archives)
This brings to my mind the vision that Joseph Smith had, when he saw Adam open the gate of the Celestial City and admit the people one by one. He then saw Father Adam conduct them to the throne one by one, when they were crowned Kings and Priests of God. I merely bring this up to impress upon your mind the principles of order, but it will nevertheless apply to every member of the Church. (Heber C. Kimball March 17, 1861, JD 9:40)
I will give you a few words of doctrine upon which there has been much inquiry, and with regard to which considerable ignorance exists. Brother Watt will write it, but it is not my intention to have it published; therefore pay good attention, and store it up in your memories. Some years ago, I advanced a doctrine with regard to Adam being our Father and God. That will be a curse to many of the Elders of Israel because of their folly. With regard to it they yet grovel in darkness and will. It is one of the most glorious revealements of the economy of heaven, yet the world hold[s] it [in] derision. Had I revealed the doctrine of baptism for the dead instead of Joseph Smith there are men around me who would have ridiculed the idea until doomsday. But they are ignorant and stupid like the dumb ass. (Excerpt from a Discourse entitled “A Few Words of Doctrine” given by President Brigham Young in the Tabernacle in Great Salt Lake City, October 8th, 1861, A.M. Reported by George D. Watt; Brigham Young Papers, Historical Dept, LDS Church—also President Brigham Young’s Doctrine on Deity, Vol I, Collier, p. 317)
Adam was as conversant with his Father who placed him upon this earth as we are conversant with our earthly parents. The Father frequently came to visit his son Adam, and talked and walked with him; and the children of Adam were more or less acquainted with their Grandfather, and their children were more or less acquainted with their Great-Grandfather; (Brigham Young, January 12, 1862, JD 9:148)
Our former religious traditions has taught us that our Father in heaven has no tabernacle, that his centre is everywhere and his circumference nowhere. Yet we read that “God came from Teman, and the Holy One from Mount Paran.” “Before him went the pestilence, and burning coals went forth at his feet.” “And the ancient of days did sit, whose garment was white as snow, and the hair of his head like the pure wool.” “Hast thou an arm like God? Or can’st thou thunder with a voice like him?” “And I will take away mine hand and thou shalt see my back parts; but my face thou shalt not see.” “The eyes of the Lord are upon the righteous, and his ears are open to their cry.” The idea that the Lord our God is not a personage of tabernacle is entirely a mistaken notion. He was once a man. (Brigham Young, February 23, 1862, JD 9:286)
The Lord told me that Adam was my father and that He was the God and Father of all the inhabitants of this earth. (Heber C. Kimball Memorandum, April 30, 1862: Sacred History, Solomon F. Kimball, LDS Church Archives)
“Three years previous to the death of Adam, he called Seth, Enos, Cainan, Mahalaleel, Jared, Enoch, and Methuselah, who were all High Priests, with the residue of his posterity who were righteous, into the valley of Adam-ondi-ahman, and there bestowed upon them his last blessing. And the Lord appeared unto them, and they rose up and blessed Adam, and called him Michael, the Prince, the Arch-angel. And the Lord administered comfort unto Adam, and said unto him; I have set thee to be at the head—a multitude of nations shall come of thee, and thou art a prince over them forever.” So, in like manner, every faithful son of God, becomes, as it were, Adam to the race that springs from his loins, when they are embraced in the covenants and blessings of the Holy Priesthood; and in the lapse of eternity, and in the progress of eternal lives, every true son of God becomes a king of kings, and a lord of lords, and it may also be said of him, as it was written of Jesus Christ, “Of the Increase of his government and peace there shall be no end.” (Brigham Young, November 6, 1864 JD, 10:355)
If Jesus should veil His glory and appear before you as a man, and witness of himself as being the image of his Father, would you believe that he was really Jesus Christ and that he told you the truth? And if you believed His words, would you not wonder exceedingly to hear that our Father and God is an organized being after the fashion of man’s organization in every respect? Such, however, is the case. One of the prophets describes the Father of us all, saying, “I beheld till the thrones were cast down, and the Ancient of days did sit, whose garment was white as snow, and the hair of his head like the pure wool; his throne was like the fiery flame,” etc. The prophet further says, “thousand thousands ministered unto him, and ten thousand times ten thousand stood before him,” etc. Again, “and, behold, one like the Son of Man came with the clouds of heaven and came to the Ancient of days, and they brought him near before him.” Now, who is this Ancient of days? You may answer this question at your pleasure, I have already told the people. But the Savior would answer the question as to the appearance of the Father of us all, by saying, “Look at me, for I am the very express image of My Father.” (Brigham Young, January 8, 1865, JD 11:40)
December 16th, 1867: At meeting of school of the prophets, President Young said Adam was Michael the Archangel and he was the father of Jesus Christ and was our God, and Joseph taught this principle. (Journal of Wilford Woodruff, 16 December 1867)
January 24th, 1868: [Speaking of President Young’s remarks] I wish to refer to the first doctrine preached that Adam was our Father and God. In the revelation called the Olive Leaf it says that the Devil gathered together the hosts of Hell, and Michael the Archangel gathered together the hosts of Heaven and he overcame the Devil and his angels, and this is the battle of the great God. Who is this Michael the Archangel? It is Adam who was Michael in the creation of the world…. (Journal of Wilford Woodruff, January 24, 1868)
December 11th, 1869: The following is a synopsis of President Young’s remarks: Some have thought it strange what I have said concerning Adam, but the period will come when this people of [the] faithful will be willing to adopt Joseph Smith as their Prophet, Seer, Revelator and God, but not the father of their spirits for that was our Father Adam. (Journal of Wilford Woodruff, December 11, 1869)
Suppose a man should come here and tell you the very nature of our Father Adam—tell precisely how he was organized, his height, his proportions, the extent of his knowledge, tell you the agreement that was entered into, the amount of knowledge that he had to forget to reduce himself to the capacity of a corruptible being! (Brigham Young, October 6, 1870, JD 13:261)
Elder Geo. Q. Cannon fully endorsed the doctrine that Father Adam was our God and Father—or as He in many places is called, Michael the great prince—Arch Angel, Ancient of Days & c. It was not only wisdom, but perfectly consistent, that Adam & Eve should partake of the forbidden fruit and start the work of increase of their species. The above doctrine had been revealed to him, so he knew that it was true. (Minutes of the Salt Lake School of the Prophets, October 15, 1870, Church Archives—underlining in original.)
School of the prophets—opening prayer by bro. W. Woodruff, who spoke a short time on the Subject of Adam being Michael, the arch-Angel & c referred to D. & C. p. 79 & Dan. 7 ch. See also D. & C. p. 106 sec. 50, p. 200 Bro. Cannon made a few remarks on the Same Subject. bro Henry said he felt like shouting “Glory Hallelujah.” Bp. A. Cahoon was called to the stand and spoke a short time vindicating himself from the charge of apostasy. Prest. Young spoke on the subject of Adam and God, “whom to know is life eternal”—who knows him? It is certainly important to know. He wanted the brethren to meditate on the subject, pray about it and keep it to themselves. (Journal of Joseph F. Smith, October 15, 1870, Church Archives—underlining in original)
Wednesday 25th I attended meeting, Orson Hyde preached to us, and he told us, what he heard before that, Adam is our God, we had a splendid good meeting. (Jens Christian Anderson Weibye diary, January 25, 1871, p. 131, Church Archives—underlining in original)
Pres D. H. Wells remarked that Pres Young touched on certain principles and doctrine yesterday, and particularly that doctrine pertaining to Adam being our Father & our God, and thought this was a proper place to call for the minds of the brethren and learn whether we as a School endorse the doctrine. He bore a powerful testimony to the truth of the doctrine, remarking that if ever he had received a testimony of any doctrine in this Church he had of the truth of this. The Endowments plainly teach it and the Bible & other revelations are full of it. The doctrine was approved or endorsed by Henry Grow, D. B. Huntington & Joseph F. Smith. The later read a portion of a revelation given to the Church, page 2 Doc. & Cov. Affirming that Michael or Adam is the Father of all—the Prince of all, and stated that the enunciation of that doctrine gave him great joy. A. H. Raleigh said he had never heard anyone dispute the doctrine,—to him it was perfectly natural, as was every other principle of the Gospel when understood. (Salt Lake City School of the Prophets minutes, June 9, 1873, Church Archives)
Who of the Christian divines know anything about the God we serve? I never saw any one, until I met Joseph Smith, who could tell me anything about the character, personality and dwelling-place of God, or anything satisfactory about angels, or the relationship of man to his Maker. Yet I was as diligent as any man need to be to try and find out these things. We know more about God and the heavens than we care to tell. And if we introduce a principle and try to reduce it to the comprehension of the people, there will be some even among the Latter-day Saints who would be hard to understand. Where is the divine who knows the least thing about that Being who is the Father of our Spirits and the author of our bodies? If we know something about him is there any harm in it? Not a bit. The world of mankind are infidels. We should all be infidel to every false principle. I am infidel in regard to many things, but to the truth, wherever found, I am no infidel. The Christian world is infidel to the truth in a great degree. Why? Because they know so little of the mind and will of God. Step outside of this kingdom, and who can tell us the first process towards covering the earth with the knowledge of God? Who is there that can tell us anything about that angel whom John saw coming with the everlasting Gospel as recorded in John’s Revelations? I never found any one who could till I saw Joseph Smith. He could tell me what I had so much desired to learn. What do the Christian divines know about it even at the present day? If they do know anything about it I wish they would tell us. But if they do not know, and will not receive the things of God from those who do know, does not this make them infidels to the truth? (Brigham Young, May 18, 1873, JD 16:40)
How much unbelief exists in the mind of the Latter-Day Saints in regard to one particular doctrine which I revealed to them, and which God revealed to me – namely that Adam is our father and God – …But I could not find any man on earth who could tell me this, although it is one of the simplest things in the world, until I met and talked with Joseph Smith. (Brigham Young, Deseret News, June 18, 1873)
President Brigham Young arose and said he wished to treat on the philosophy of our holy religion. “God being the author of all Truth, if I speak the word of the Lord.” “Science may shake hands with my religion.” He said the Scriptures had been dissected and culled and but little of what was remains now. Said, if we are not Christ-like, we are not Christians. The religion taught by Jesus is what we have received, and profess to carry out. “First: have we learned the Character of him I believe in? His Character seemed natural to him. He took the divinity of the Father in mortality and sanctified that mortality. Who is the Father? The one that begot his spirit, begot him in the womb of the Virgin Mary. The Christian world does not know this. It will not receive the Light that has come into the world but chooses darkness rather than light. This disposition in them is why they are constantly at war with us.” What are our conceptions of heaven? He said he had never seen the sectarian priest or preacher that could answer the question. What are our conceptions of heaven? Even among us we shall find various definitions—happiness Etc., Etc. Shut the people only in this city and let them receive nothing but truth, throw error over the wall. Take truth, and it will sanctify, until all are pure—their flesh is purified until they begin to live on angels’ food, until all become pure and holy. See Angels? Yes, the Son of Man comes and goes; the Father comes,—by thus having overcome, and this having taken place here, what place shall we call it? Why—Heaven, because that is the only appellation that we know. Is there in the heaven of heavens a leader? Yes, and we cannot do without one and that being the case, whoever his is, may be called God. Joseph said that Adam was our Father and God, and himself being a leader, he too was their God. (Southern Utah Mission, 1873-1877 Historical Record, St. George Stake, May 14, 1876, pp. 23-28, Journal History, May 14, 1876, and Historical Department of the LDS Church.)
[Essentials of the former Lecture at the Veil from the Endowment, written by L. John Nuttall, at the direction of Brigham Young:] In the creation the Gods entered into an agreement about forming this earth, and putting Michael or Adam upon it. These things of which I have been speaking are what are termed the mysteries of godliness but they will enable you to understand the expression of Jesus, made while in Jerusalem, “This is life eternal that they might know thee, the only true God and Jesus Christ whom thou hast sent.” . . . Adam was an immortal being when he came on this earth; he had lived on an earth similar to ours; he had received the Priesthood and the keys thereof, and had been faithful in all things and gained his resurrection and his exaltation, and was crowned with glory, immortality and eternal lives, and was numbered with the Gods for such he became through his faithfulness. And had begotten all the spirits that was to come to this earth. And Eve our common mother who is the mother of all living bore those spirits in the celestial world. And when this earth was organized by Elohim, Jehovah and Michael, who is Adam our common father, Adam and Eve had the privilege to continue the work of progression. Consequently they came to this earth and commenced the great work of forming tabernacles for those spirits to dwell in. And when Adam and those that assisted him had completed this kingdom, our earth, he came to it, and slept and forgot all and became like an infant child . . . Adam and Eve when they were placed on this earth were immortal beings with flesh, bones and sinews. But upon partaking of the fruits of the earth while in the garden and cultivating the ground their bodies became changed from immortal to mortal beings with the blood coursing through their veins as the action of life. . . Father Adam’s oldest son (Jesus the Savior), who is the heir of the family, is father Adam’s first begotten in the spirit world, who according to the flesh is the only begotten as it is written. (Part of the “Lecture at the Veil” in the former LDS Endowment ceremony. Diary of L. John Nuttall, February 7, 1877. Brother Nuttall put this lecture in writing at the direction of and with the supervision of President Young)
The Lecture at the veil is true. Procreation is the gift of Eternal Lives, and if we are faithful we shall create worlds and people them just as Adam has done. (President Wilford Woodruff, June 11, 1892, St. George Stake High Council Minutes, Church Archives)
Adam was buried by God and was dead like the twinkling of an Eye, and his God exalted him immediately. Mary was sealed to Adam, and was his wife when she had Jesus. Mary will be the Queen to People another world; Mary was the Second wife to Adam; and unless we have two wives, we can never be Gods. Adam will worship his God we will worship Adam, and our children will worship us. (Jens Christian Weibye Daybook # 5 , March 1, 1877, 20-22)
Adam is our Father and God. He is the God of the earth. * * * Adam is the great Archangel of this creation. He is Michael. He is the Ancient of Days. He is the father of our elder brother, Jesus Christ—the father of him who shall also come as Messiah to reign. He is the father of the spirits as well as the tabernacles of the sons and daughters of man—Adam! * * * Michael is one of the grand mystical names in the works of creations; redemptions and resurrections. * * * Michael was a celestial, resurrected being, of another world. * * * ‘In the beginning,’ the Gods created the heavens and the earths. In their councils they said, ‘Let us make man in our own image.’ So, in the likeness of the Fathers, and the Mothers—the Gods—created they man—male and female. When this earth was prepared for mankind, Michael, as Adam, came down. He brought with him one of his wives, and he called her name Eve. * * * Adam and Eve are the names of the fathers and mothers of worlds. (Eliza R. Snow Smith with Edward Tullidge, Women of Mormondom, 1877, p. 179)
Very different is Mormon Theology! The Mormons exalt the grand parents of our race. Not even is the name of Christ more sacred to them than the names of Adam and Eve. It was to them the poetess and high priestess addressed her hymn of invocation; and Brigham’s proclamation that Adam is our Father and God is like a hallelujah chorus to their everlasting names. The very earth shall yet take it up; all the sons and daughters of Adam and Eve shall yet shout it for joy, to the ends of the earth, in every tongue! (Eliza R. Snow Smith with Edward Tullidge, Women of Mormondom, 1877, p. 180)
The grand patriarchal economy, with Adam, as a resurrected being, who brought his wife Eve from another world has been very finely elaborated by Brigham from the patriarchal genesis which Joseph conceived. (Eliza R. Snow Smith with Edward Tullidge, Women of Mormondom, 1877, p. 181)
Brightest among these spirits, and nearest in the circle to our Father and Mother in heaven (the Father being Adam), were Seth, Enoch, Noah, and Abraham, Moses, David, and Jesus Christ— * * * These are the sons and daughters of Adam—the Ancient of Days—the Father and God of the whole human family. These are the sons and daughters of Michael, who is Adam, the father of the spirits of all our race. These are the sons and daughters of Eve, the Mother of a world. (Eliza R. Snow Smith with Edward Tullidge, Women of Mormondom, 1877, p.. 191)
When Brigham Young proclaimed to the nations that Adam was our Father and God, and Eve, his partner, the Mother of a world—both in a mortal and celestial sense—he made the most important revelation ever oracled to the race since the days of Adam himself. This grand patriarchal revelation is the very key-stone of the ‘New Creation’ of the heavens and the earth. It gives new meaning to the whole system of theology—” (Eliza R. Snow Smith with Edward Tullidge, Women of Mormondom, 1877, p. 196)
Adam, your God, like you on earth, has been
Subject to sorrow in a world of sin:
Through long gradation he arose to be
Cloth’d with the Godhead’s might and majesty.
And what to him in his probative sphere,
Whether a Bishop, Deacon, Priest, or Seer?
Whate’er his offices and callings were,
He magnified them with assiduous care:
By his obedience he obtain’d the place
Of God and Father of this human race.
Obedience will the same bright garland weave,
As it has done for your great mother, Eve,
For all her daughters on the earth, who will
All my requirements sacredly fulfill.
And what to Eve, though in her mortal life,
She’d been the first, the tenth, or fiftieth wife?
What did she care, when in her lowest state,
Whether by fools, consider’d small, or great?
‘Twas all the same with her—she’d proved her worth—
She’s now the Goddess and Queen of Earth.
Life’s ultimatum, unto those that live
As Saints of God, and all my pow’rs receive;
Is still the onward, upward course to tread—
To stand as Adam and as Eve, the head
Of an inheritance, a new-form’d earth,
And to their spirit-race, give mortal birth—
Give them experience in a world like this;
Then lead them forth to everlasting bliss,
Crown’d with salvation and eternal joy
Where full perfection dwells, without alloy.”
(Eliza R. Snow, An Immortal, pp. 188-189; Poems of Eliza R. Snow 2:8-9)
Father Adam, our God, let all Israel extol,
And Jesus, our Brother, who died for us all.
(Eliza R. Snow, Mill. Star 17:320)
I heard Joseph Smith say that Adam was the Ancient of Days spoken of by Daniel . . . Joseph traced the priesthood from Adam to Peter, James and John, they to Joseph and all who have held a portion of the priesthood would have to given an account of their stewardship of priesthood to the one from whom they received it, rendering up an account of your stewardship to the one that proceeded you, but you do not give up your priesthood. Adam heard the voice of the Lord walking in the garden. Adam had a god then . . . and when we get to God our Father we are told to approach him in the name of Jesus. Adam is the father of our bodies. Who is to say he is not the father of our spirits. (President John Taylor, January 13, 1880, L. John Nutall Papers, Special Collections, BYU Library)
Davis Stake Conference: Then by Request of One of the Presidency treated upon God as the father of our Spirits in the previous World, & then Adam our Father came down as one of the 3 that made this world & Fell that man in the Flesh might be & in order for this change to take place Adam had to partake of the fruits of this Earth & change his system from Immortal to mortal—changing the fluid in his veins to mortal-compatible Blood by which his Issue was mortal houses for his pure Spirits begotten in other & previous World to come & take these mortal houses Bodies of flesh & perform a mission in this Earthly house of clay & in this humiliated state like Jesus in our Judgments are taken away as the words of the poet are . . . therefore Adam is the Father of my Spirit & also of my body, the body being Bone of his Bone & Flesh of his Flesh. I Spoke 45 Minutes & Bp. Hess said that he could endorse all that had been said although he did not understand all, yet it made him feel good & like living his religion. (Edward Stevenson Diary, March 7, 1880, SLC, Utah, underlining in original.)
He [Abraham Cannon’s father George Q. Cannon] asked me what I understood concerning Mary conceiving the Savior; and as I found no answer, he asked what was to prevent Father Adam from visiting and overshadowing the mother of Jesus. “Then” said I, “he must have been a resurrected Being.” “Yes,” said he, “and though Christ is said to have been the first fruits of them that slept, yet the Savior said he did nothing but what He had seen his father do, for He had power to lay down His Life and take it up again. Adam, though made of dust, was made, as Pres. Young said, of the dust of another planet than this.” I was very much instructed by the conversation and this days services. ([Apostle] Abraham H. Canon journal, March 10, 1888, 10:178-179)
We will speak in the 5th chapter of Genesis that Adam died at the advanced age of 930 years. But it is often asked, “ Did Adam lie in the grave until he was redeemed therefrom through the death and resurrection of the Only Begotten?” I will ask a question in reply: “Did Jesus have power to lay down His life and take it up again?” He so declared. It might be well at this point to enquire who was the Savior of the world: and what relation did He bear to our father Adam? For the veil of the mysterious past has been lifted just a little to enable us to see within. I will first quote from a discourse preached by President B. Young, in Salt Lake City, April 9th, 1952:
[Quotes Brigham Young Discourse from JD 1:50, starting:] “The question has been often asked . . .” [until] “. . . will prove their salvation or damnation.”
We will now quote some of the sayings of Joseph Smith upon this point, as uttered by him in Nauvoo, April 7th, 1844:
[Quotes Joseph Smith from the “King Follett Discourse” starting:] “It is the first principle of the Gospel to know for a certainty the character of God, and to know . . .” [until] “. . . and thereby come exalted Myself; so that Jesus treads in the track of His Father and inherits what God did before.”
I think these two quotations from such a reliable authority fully solve the question as to the relationship existing between Father Adam and the Savior of the world, and prove beyond question the power that Adam possessed in regard to taking his body again after laying it down—which power he never could have attained unless he had received first a resurrection from the grave to a condition of immortality. We further say that this power was not forfeited when as a celestial being he voluntarily partook of the forbidden fruit, and thereby rendered his body mortal in order that he might become the father of mortal tabernacles, as he was already the father of immortal spirits—thus giving opportunity to the offspring of his own begetting to pass through the ordeals necessary to prepare them for a resurrection from the dead, a celestial glory.
All that Father Adam did upon this earth, from the time that he took up his abode in the Garden of Eden, was done for his posterity’s sake, and the success of his former mission as the savior of a world, and afterwards, or now, as the father of a world, only added to the glory which he already possessed. If, as the savior of a world, he had the power to lay down his life and take it up again, therefore, as the father of a world which is altogether an advanced condition, we necessarily conclude that the grave was powerless to hold him after that mission was completed. All those who have now for the first time taken upon themselves mortality, must wait for their resurrection through Him who alone possesses the power to bring it to pass. (The Deseret Weekly, December 29, 1888, 38:19-21—The lecture from which this excerpt was taken was written by Joseph E. Taylor, and read in the Logan Temple on June 1, 1888)
Now brothers and sisters, we talk about the OFFICE OF ADAMHOOD AND EVEHOOD [caps in original] like we talk about driving to the theatre, in those simple terms. We talk about having conferred on us the office of Adam or Eve as though it is as simple and easy as eating a fine tasty morsel. This is not the case, brothers and sisters. If we have desires and callings in our hearts to become Adams and Eves, we will have to be proved under every conceivable and inconceivable fashion BY THOSE WHO ARE DIRECTING US! [caps in original] We think of Father Adam living in a peaceful condition, a place filled with music and love and good times. Do you really think Father Adam at this moment dwells in such a place? No! He is fighting, working and laboring to bring to pass the immortality and eternal life of His children. Think for a moment as I recite these things what you have to do to become an Adam or an Eve. The scriptures say that Father so loved the world that He gave His Only Begotten Son, and that no greater love can one have, but He not only gave His Only Begotten Son, but He so loved the world that He GAVE HIMSELF! [caps in original] Think, after walking through this mortal state Himself and having finally won the prize and had the Ancients lay Their hands upon His head and confer upon Him the office of Adam, and after having lived in glory and grandeur, together with his wives, and having begotten beautiful spirit children, and having become a God, He so loved the Plans of the Gods and this great work that He was willing to come to a condition of corruption, of pain and distress again to start us out with these mortal bodies! * * * The scriptures speak often of the Lord bowing His head and weeping. They said that the Lord was Adam our Father and God. Love? What kind of love do we have for this work when we compare it with that very act, just one single act of our Father Adam, who left His perfect God-like sphere to step downward to become mortal to grovel in the dust again to teach His children and to set an example to them, and bear the heat of the day and the darkness of the night, and have one of his sons turn upon another and slay him; to labor again upon the earth like this for over nine hundred years of sorrow. * * * Now when we speak of becoming an Adam or an Eve, my dear children, we speak of doing these things, of living like Them upon this earth and living like They are now living. We speak of this great capacity to make this work the very character within us. This is not a work you can cut in half and retain a part and destroy a part. This a work that must be loved by you to the deepest depth of your character. If there are any of the principles of our Father that you dislike, you are not now capable or prepared to receive the office of Adam or of an Eve. * * * Do you suppose for one minute that Father Adam and His wives are unhappy? Can you suppose for one minute that They dwell in Their everlasting burnings in a condition of despair, and the spirit of being forsaken and despondent because They have been asked to take upon Themselves the principles pertaining to the Celestial Kingdom? * * * How long do we want to kid ourselves and make these foolish expressions to our Heavenly Father? When we realize where He dwells is only a short distance away, an exalted man with body, parts and passions. He had trod on earth-life and through His faithfulness and sacrifices. His brethren have said, ‘Well done, thou good and faithful servant’ and laid hands upon His head and gave Him the power of Adamhood and He took His wives to His kingdom and there under direction of those over Him, He began to learn and began to have His spiritual offspring. This exalted man while on the earth suffered all that we can hope to and more and how reigns a short distance from us in His kingdom, a God with body, parts and passions! * * * Don’t you think He fully knows the beat of your heart, brethren, when you cannot obtain that which you think you should have and He says patience? This exalted personage can say, “Yes, my dear, I understand,” and what a crime it would be for us to turn our faces to Him and say, “Do you really, Father?” What an expression of ignorance and ingratitude, when we know who our Father is [and] what made Him our Father. He understands these things and He sometimes will say, “I would do anything if I could take your hand and help you through this!” He sometimes expressed Himself to Mother Eve, “I would do anything if I could bear this burden because I am strong,” as we would say to one another, “I would be glad if I could do this for you.” But Father knows that we have to walk this path alone. Do you think it was easy for Him to watch His son suffer, this noble and good Boy, so faithful in the spirit world, when one brother raised up and said, “I will save all your children and bring back all and for this work give me Your honor and glory and kingdoms!” This noble son stood up and said, “Brethren, I will follow the way of our God and unto Him will be given the honor and glory forever!” * * * I feel grateful, I want to tell you, beyond all my power to express myself of my love for my Heavenly Father, and I do not feel that I am abusing my rights or belittling His high and glorious calling and place of residence when I call Him Father Adam and place Him on such a personal basis and relationship. I cannot begin to express my gratitude for having been born by Him and my Mother in the spirit world or of having the way opened up in being one of those rowdy, runny-nosed sons of Jacob, polygamous kids. I cannot pay sufficient honor to the powers that be for thus organizing my life and setting me in the light of the sunshine of these eternal and exalting principles. I want to say that I am grateful to my Father Adam…I am grateful…(pronounced emotion)… And I know Father, that You are a great God and a King above Kings; I know that in Your hands are all the corners of this earth, and the strength of the hills are yours, and the sea is Yours for You made it, and Your hands have prepared the dry land. Who among the Mighty, Father, can be likened unto You? Yea, who among the Mighty can be likened unto You!…(Emotional pause) These are tears of joy, dear people. I seldom have tears of sadness, but I have wept worlds of tears of joy for this great work; and I feel like shouting to all and wish my words to be heard, HALLELUJAH, HALLELUJAH, GLORY BE TO ADAM OUR FATHER AND OUR GOD, TO JESUS CHRIST HIS SON, AND TO THEIR BELOVED JOSEPH! FOREVER AND FOREVER, AMEN AND AMEN! [caps in original] (Apostle John W. Taylor (son of President John Taylor), Discourse in Tabernacle 1888, Church Archives—See “Notes on Apostle John W. Taylor” at the end of the section on the Manifesto)
Certainly Eloheim, and Jehovah stands before Adam, or else I am very much mistaken. Then 1 st Eloheim, 2 nd Jehovah, 3 d Michael-Adam, 4 th Jesus Christ, Our Elder Brother, in the other World from whence our spirits came . . . Then Who is Jehovah? The only begotten Son of Eloheim on Jehovah’s world. (Edward Stevenson Diary, February 28, 1896, SLC, Utah)
I have more pleasure than usual with a deep talk with Pres. L. Snow on Adam – Jehovah – Eloheim and Jesus and Spirits, and Regarding their immortality, creation, &c — &c. (Edward Stevenson Diary, March 3, 1896, SLC, Utah, underlining in original.)
[The Adam-God doctrine] is a point of more advanced doctrine, too precious a pearl to be cast before swine. (Conclusion of the LDS Council of the Twelve Apostles, as recorded by Franklin D. Richards, December 18, 1897, Letterbook, Richards Family Collection.)
At meeting of all the apostles except Grant and Merill, Pres. Snow let out on Adam being our father and God. How beautiful the thought – – it brot [sic] God nearer to us. Bro Franklin [D. Richards] said it made him thrill through his whole body—it was new & it was inspiring. I followed. (Brigham Young Jr. diary, October 12, 1897, Church Archives)
He [Joseph Smith] taught us that God was the great head of human procreation—was really and truly the father of both our spirits and our bodies. (Benjamin F. Johnson letter to George Gibbs, 1903)
Excerpts from Apostle Orson F. Whitney’s epic work of poetry: “Elias: An Epic of the Ages,” which clearly sets forth the Adam-God doctrine:
“Father!”-the voice like music fell,
Clear as the murmuring flow
Of mountain streamlet trickling down
From heights of virgin snow.
“Father,” it said, “since one must die,
Thy children to redeem,
Whilst earth, as yet unformed and void,
With pulsing life shall teem;
“And thou, great Michael foremost fall,
That mortal man may be,
And chosen Saviour yet must send,
Lo, here am I-send me!
I ask, I seek no recompense,
Save that which then were mine;
Mine be the willing sacrifice,
The endless glory, Thine!
(Apostle Orson F. Whitney, “Elias, An Epic of the Ages,” 1904, Canto III)
Ancient of Days here sits, as at the first,
When time and earth and Adam’s race were young;
When, bowed with age, a great soul’s sunset burst
In blessings on his seed, while told that tongue
Far more than eye hath seen or lip hath sung.
Michael, the prince, the monarch of our race,
Sire of the soul, whence dust and spirit sprung,-
Here sits he, throned in fire; before his face
Ten thousand times ten thousand throng the judgment place.
(Apostle Orson F. Whitney, “Elias, An Epic of the Ages,” 1904, Canto VI)
Visioned the council of the Ancient One,
Where Stars make ready for the rising Sun,
Where Adam yields the mortal world he won
Unto the Sabbath Lord, till sabbath done,
And Sire receives the kingdom from the Son.
(Apostle Orson F. Whitney, “Elias, An Epic of the Ages,” 1904, Canto VII)
‘Mid everlasting burnings unconsumed;
Celestial seer-stone, making manifest
All things below to souls upon her breast,
By whom the white stone-new name, keyword blest,-
Revealing all above them, is possessed;
Chosen, omniscient, children of the Sun,
Offspring of Adam, Michael, Ancient One,
Who comes anon his fiery throne to rear,
His subjects summoning from far and near.
Ten thousand times ten thousand bow the knee,
And monarch hail him through eternity.
(Apostle Orson F. Whitney, “Elias, An Epic of the Ages,” 1904, Canto VII)
Where blest in heaven, though curst in earth and hell,
The law that framed the house of Israel,
Light’s lineal sheath and faith’s fraternity,
The called and chosen of eternity;
Where lives, ne’er ending lives, perpetuate
The joys, a myriad-fold, of mortal state,
And bind with links welded in lesser years
The love-united systems of the spheres.
The body as the sheath without the sword;
No man without the woman in the Lord;
Each pair the Eve and Adam of some world,
Perchance unborn, unorbited, unwhirled.
(Apostle Orson F. Whitney, “Elias, An Epic of the Ages,” 1904, Canto VII)
Earth, its mineral, vegetable and animal wealth, its Paradise prepared, down comes from yonder world on high a son of God, with his beloved spouse. (Parley P. Pratt, Key to Science of Theology, p 50)
Brother Horne and I chatted again tonight about the Gospel and the Adam-God Doctrine, as we have done many times before. Brother Horne, who grew up in Salt Lake City and was the son of Richard Horne and grandson of Joseph Horne, said – in reference to the Adam-God Doctrine – that when he first went through the (Salt Lake) Temple for his Endowment in 1902 before going on his mission he was surprised to hear the teachings during the Temple ceremony that ‘Adam was our God’ and that ‘He came here with Eve, one of His wives’. Also, it was taught that ‘Eve bore our spirits’. He asked his father about it but he declined to give any opinion about it. After Brother Horne returned from his mission a few years later, in 1905, he noted these teachings had been removed from the Temple ceremony. (C. Jess Groesbeck’s Elders Journal, Vol. 1:291)
A careful, detached study of his available statements, as found in the official publications of the Church, will admit of no other conclusion than that the identification of Adam with God the Father by President Brigham Young is an irrefutable fact. (Rodney Turner, Master of Arts Thesis, Brigham Young University, submitted August 1953, page 58. This thesis was approved by Dr. Sidney B. Sperry, thesis committee chairman, and Dr. Hugh Nibley, thesis committee member. This thesis was accepted by the University as satisfying the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts. Dr. Turner has had a long career of teaching every religious and doctrinal course available in the College of Religious Instruction of Brigham Young University. Until his retirement, he has been since 1972 a member of BYU’s religion faculty, and has lectured extensively throughout the United States as a part of the BYU Continuing Education Program. Dr. Turner has been a Professor of Church History and Doctrine, as well as chairman of the BYU Department of Theology. He has composed study curricula for all Church auxiliaries, and has written numerous articles for Church and religious magazines.)
There is no defense against the Adam-God doctrine. (Zina Nibley Petersen, BYU English Professor and daughter of noted LDS Scholar Hugh Nibley, in a personal statement to the editor [John Pratt] at a reception in Alpine, Utah, July 25, 2001)
They are they who are priests and kings, who have received of his fulness, and of his glory; And are priests of the Most High, after the order of Melchizedek, which was after the order of Enoch, which was after the order of the Only Begotten Son. (D&C 76:56-57)
Note: Please see general comments on the Restoration doctrines of Deity at the end of the section on “Jehovah.”